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Saturday, October 8, 2016

Pumps And Plumbing

As record rainfalls and record snows inundate some regions in the world, one mechanical device that has increased in importance for homeowners and businesses is the pump. It can remove liquids easily and safely thus minimizing damage from flooding or other unexpected excess water events.

Pumps can also move water efficiently to allow for its best use such as for irrigation of farm lands, city parks or any other area requiring additional water.

There are three types of methods that pumps can use to move water or many other types of liquid. They include direct lift, displacement and gravity. The displacement pump is most frequently used and has a number of subcategories that relate to the type of displacement the pump uses.

Positive Displacement Pump
This type of pump moves the liquid by collecting it then discharging it into a discharge pipe. These pumps allow for a constant flow of liquid. A safety value is necessary on the discharge side of a positive displacement pump to protect it against a closed discharge valve.

There are three types of positive displacement pumps: rotary positive displacement pumps, reciprocating positive displacement pumps and linear positive displacement pumps.

Rotary Positive Displacement Pump
This pump uses a rotating device which works by producing a vacuum allowing for the capture and extraction of the fluid. This type of pump includes the gear pump where liquid is thrust through two gears, the screw pump where two screws turn against each other for liquid pumping and the rotary vane pump in which a cylindrical rotor is inside closely shaped housing and the orbiting rotor enables the vanes to trap the liquid between the rotor and housing allowing the liquid to go through the pump.

The Reciprocating Positive Displacement Pump
This type of pump moves liquid via one or more pistons that move in an oscillating motion or with plungers. Valves control the liquids motion to the required direction. The reciprocating pump can be a one cylinder known as a simplex as well as a two cylinder known as a duplex or a three cylinder known as a triplex. These pumps can be a single-acting with suction moving the liquid in one direction as the piston moves in that direction and discharging when the piston moves in another direction. The double acting pump allows for suction and discharge in both directions.

The pump is powered manually, by air or steam, or by a belt, driven by an engine. The reciprocating pump is normally used for thick fluids such as concrete or heavy oils. This pump’s primary application is for fluids with low flow rates against high resistance.

The positive displacement pumps contain a cavity that expands on the suction side of the pump and a cavity that decreases on the discharge side of the pump. The specific pumps include the plunger pump, the diaphragm pump and the piston pump.

The Linear Positive Displacement Pump
This type of pump includes the chain pump and the rope pump. A chain pump is made up of several circular discs that are attached to a chain which runs through a tube. The tube is larger than the discs so that when the chain is drawn up the tube, water is lifted and discharged as a result of becoming trapped in the discs. The rope pump utilizes a continuous rope with valves inside a PVC pipe that can be solar powered resulting in continuous pumping.


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